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Front Axle Alignment
Toe
Camber
Caster
King Pin Inclination (KPI)
Turning Radius
Axle Setback

Drive Axle Alignment
Tracking
Toe

Camber
Offset

Trailer Axle Alignment
Tracking
Toe

Camber

 

TURNING RADIUS
IS A DESIGN ANGLE

Ackermann Steering Principle

Turning Alignment
Toe-Out on Turns

Can be a big tire wear problem
when a lot of turning is required or if improperly designed.


Contangent IT = Contangent OT - WT/WB

TURNING RADIUS
IN DEGREES

(WT)

(Tire Centerline To Tire Centerline in Inches)
    40 50 60 70  

80 24.0 25.2 26.6 28.1 To determine a vehicle's turning radius:
(WB) 100 23.1 24.0 25.0 26.0 1.  Measure WT (See sketch A)

Wheel

120 22.5 23.2 24.0 24.8 2.  Measure WB (See sketch B)

Base

140 22.1 22.7 23.3 24.0 3.  Read intersection of WT and WB
In. 160 21.8 22.3 22.9 23.4 for turning radius

 

(WT)

(Tire Centerline To Tire Centerline in Inches)
    72 76 78 80 82 86 90 94
  80 28.4 29.1 29.4 29.8 30.1 30.9 31.7 32.5
  100 26.3 26.7 26.9 27.2 27.4 27.9 28.4 29.0
  120 25.0 25.3 25.5 25.7 25.9 26.2 26.6 27.0
  130 24.5 24.8 25.0 25.1 25.3 25.6 26.0 26.3

140 24.1 24.4 24.5 24.7 24.8 25.1 25.4 25.7
(WB)
150 23.8 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.7 25.0 25.2
Wheel
160 23.5 23.8 23.9 24.0 24.1 24.4 24.6 24.8

Base

170 23.3 23.5 23.6 23.7 23.8 24.0 24.3 24.5
In.
180 23.1 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.8 24.0 24.2
  190 229 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.6 23.7 23.9
  200 22.7 22.9 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.5 23.7
  210 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.9 23.0 23.2 23.3 23.5
  220 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.8 23.0 23.2 23.3
  240 22.2 22.4 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.9 23.0
  260 22.0 22.2 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7